Eating Disorders in Athletes
Athletes and Eating Disorders
Sports have been an amazing vehicle in which one develops strength, self esteem, and skills that translate into proficiency in life and the business world. Sports also offer protective factors for young athletes facing many pressures from their culture. They have opportunities for skill development, which improves self-esteem; they have strong social supports through their team; and they experience positive effects of exercise on their mood.
At the same time, athletes have many risk factors that make them susceptible to disordered eating patterns and eating disorders. The perfectionist, goal oriented, success-at-any-cost attitude that make athletes so driven and capable on the field, are also common characteristics of those vulnerable to eating disorders. Research suggests that as many as 30% of athletes experience sub clinical eating disorder symptoms. A recent study of NCAA trainers found that 91% of them believed that they had encountered an athlete with an eating disorder.
Specific sports where athletes must ‘make weight’ or maintain a certain size put athletes more at risk. These sports include: gymnastics, swimming, diving, rowing, bodybuilding and wrestling. In addition, sports such as track, diving, figure skating and dance also increase risk, as they focus on appearance, as well as on the individual, rather than the team.
One of the challenges is that an athlete can at first maintain good performance and success in school while struggling with a disorder. An athlete may be able to function at a high level, but often there is significant disturbance in thought and mood (and eventually health) as a result of disordered eating behaviors.
In her book “Age is Just a Number,” Dara Torres writes, “The worst part of my bulimia was its psychological effect. Sure, I had no energy in the water, and my face was bloated…But the real problem was that I lost my mind. I was extremely dark and moody…Pretty much all I thought about during college was what I ate, what I wanted to eat, what other people ate, what I’d need to do to get rid of the calories I’d ingested, how much exercise I got, and how I would look in my swimsuit when I mounted the blocks.”
Even if a full eating disorder does not emerge, there are important physical consequences to calorie restriction in some athletes. According to Dr. Kate Ackerman, MD, MPH, internist, endocrinologist and sports medicine specialist, athletes may believe they are improving their performance by being leaner, but often they compromise not only performance, but health. “I see a lot of patients with injuries that are brought on by their lack of caloric intake. This not only takes them out of training and competition, but also impairs their healing process.”
Dr. Ackerman is one of the leading experts in the female athlete triad, a condition involving the interrelated symptoms of disordered eating, menstrual irregularity and low bone mass. Although the exact prevalence of the Triad is unknown, studies have reported disordered eating in up to 62% and amenorrhea in up to 66% of female athletes. The basic premise is that when an athlete eats too few calories, it causes brain hormone levels to change, disrupting signals to the ovaries to produce estrogen. Estrogen is key to bone development, and without it, bones don’t develop properly or maintain optimum density. This is particularly important in adolescent girls, as 90% of peak bone mass is attained by age 18, with only mild gains up to age 30. This means that disrupting the menstrual cycle during adolescence and early adulthood has a profound effect on bone health. Sadly, there are many team cultures that unofficially “promote” dieting and even loss of one’s period. Dr. Ackerman states, “For young women, the menstrual cycle is like another vital sign. When it’s disrupted, it let’s us know that something unhealthy is going on. Whether it’s a condition like polycystic ovarian syndrome, or a situation of energy deficit, it’s important to see a doctor to help to determine the cause of disrupted periods and to return the body to its optimal balance for peak performance.”
Given the shame and secrecy that accompanies eating disorders, it is not surprising that fewer than 28% of those with eating disorders seek treatment. Of those treated with empirically supported treatments, only 40% are shown in research to maintain lasting freedom from symptoms. This makes the case for both prevention efforts and early detection.
Participating in sports creates a wonderful opportunity for young men and women to develop strong friendships, confidence, and skills. In today’s culture where there are so many strong messages about appearance and body size, it can be hard for young people to navigate their way to a healthy body weight. It is important for teammates, parents, coaches, and trainers to be educated about the negative impact disordered eating patterns can have on athletes.
For additional information on athletes with eating disorders, refer to the following resources:
University Athlete and ED Policies and Protocols:
Tell me about struggle, and I will tell that at every moment, of every day, the Olympic torch flickers somewhere. It has been witnessed by millions over the years; it has been held, passed, and celebrated.
The Olympics bring out our human desire for excellence, for reaching one’s potential, and for the willingness to take risks in pursuit of something great. I was an Olympic athlete, but I did not win an Olympic medal. I stood on the sidelines as an alternate at the Olympic games. I cheered others on. I was left to wonder what I could have achieved, if I hadn’t fought with my own body for so many years in a constant struggle with an eating disorder. Something told me that those years of training were just preparation for a different challenge that would come later in life.
I used to chase victory. I chased it as I raced for the finish line of competitions. I chased it for accolades in education. I chased it through the right job, the right body, the right outfit, the right car, and the right relationship – the right you name it. But a true sense of victory never came that way. I have only found what I was looking for by setting my sights on quieter and more personal aspects of my life. When I let myself value what I needed most in my life – recovery – and when I then let myself direct my strength and resources to know recovery, I began to know a fuller victory. I began to feel a triumphant spirit, a powerful alternative to the shame and dismay that was with me when I fought against myself day after day.
I am still in training, but I am no longer on the sidelines. I train to be part of life, to have compassion for myself, and to be fully engaged. The self-respect, the peace, the connections, that have come from focusing on the invisible victories of life, has offered me far greater happiness than chasing the big to-do’s. Victory can be a daily endeavor as struggle is certainly a part of life, but to have the opportunity to struggle within one’s life vs. always struggling with one’s self, is a privilege.
There is an Olympic torch out there flickering. It is waiting for athletes across the globe to seek its glory. But there is a torch of victory out there for you. Maybe it is there to warm your dreams, spark your hope, and cheer you on towards recovery. Maybe that is your triumph. And maybe it will take an Olympic effort, an Olympic risk, an Olympic sacrifice, and Olympic support. Maybe you are on the path to a beautiful victory of your own.
Eating Disorders in Athletes